Russian foreign trade
reports and reviews

Russian foreign trade in 2016

by Russian Foreign Trade
based on data from the Federal Customs Service of Russia
The Report on Russia’s foreign trade in goods in 2016: turnover, exports, imports, products, dynamics.

Russia’s Trade

In 2016, Russia’s trade was $467,753 million, down 11.12% ($58,522 million) from 2015.

Russia’s exports in 2016 were $285,491 million, down 16.91% ($58,106 million) from 2015.

Russia’s imports in 2016 were $182,262 million, down 0.23% ($416 million) from 2015.

Russia’s trade surplus in 2016 was $103,229 million, a 35.85% decrease ($57,690 million) over 2015.

Russia’s Exports

The major share of Russian exports in 2016 (and in 2015) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 59.18% of Russia’s total exports (63.80% in 2015);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 10.18% of Russia’s total exports (9.59% in 2015);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 7.28% of Russia’s total exports (7.38% in 2015);
  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 6.39% of Russia’s total exports (5.73% in 2015);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 5.97% of Russia’s total exports (4.72% in 2015);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 3.43% of Russia’s total exports (2.86% in 2015);
  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 3.12% of Russia’s total exports (2.30% in 2015).

The largest gains in Russia’s exports in 2016 over 2015 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin (HS code 71) - an increase of $1,017 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s exports in 2016 over 2015 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - a decrease of $50,179 million;
  • Fertilizers (HS code 31) - a decrease of $2,216 million;
  • Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes (HS code 28) - a decrease of $1,917 million;
  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - a decrease of $1,903 million;
  • Copper and articles thereof (HS code 74) - a decrease of $1,158 million;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - a decrease of $1,129 million;
  • Aluminum and articles thereof (HS code 76) - a decrease of $969 million.
Russia’s exports in 2016 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of exports
in 2016,
million US dollars
Percent share in total export Value of exports
in 2015,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2016
over 2015
01 Live animals 23 0.01 225.16
02 Meat and edible meat offal 219 0.08 11983.49
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 3,015 1.06 2,7888.17
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 225 0.08 227-0.90
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 74 0.03 689.40
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 3 0.00 310.40
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 479 0.17 40318.91
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 77 0.03 84-8.42
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 141 0.05 12810.38
10 Cereals 5,606 1.96 5,651-0.80
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 243 0.09 262-7.33
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 520 0.18 39332.13
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 9 0.00 635.20
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 9 0.00 11-19.21
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 2,209 0.77 1,87417.82
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 132 0.05 1237.19
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 245 0.09 17638.97
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 484 0.17 4448.93
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 519 0.18 5131.16
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 224 0.08 231-3.36
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 506 0.18 5010.86
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 454 0.16 4247.01
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 945 0.33 974-2.91
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 686 0.24 781-12.14
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 949 0.33 1,102-13.96
26 Ores, slag and ash 2,015 0.71 1,9582.93
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 165,984 58.14 216,162-23.21
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 4,477 1.57 6,393-29.98
29 Organic chemicals 2,409 0.84 2,967-18.80
30 Pharmaceutical products 635 0.22 54416.64
31 Fertilizers 6,637 2.32 8,853-25.03
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 239 0.08 253-5.67
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 499 0.17 41121.48
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 405 0.14 4001.28
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 33 0.01 2915.21
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 107 0.04 152-29.75
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 8 0.00 84.69
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 535 0.19 537-0.38
39 Plastics and articles thereof 2,252 0.79 2,326-3.19
40 Rubber and articles thereof 2,543 0.89 2,5011.67
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 153 0.05 178-14.44
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 42 0.01 3714.74
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 67 0.02 96-29.98
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 6,524 2.29 6,3163.29
45 Cork and articles of cork 1 0.00 1-20.97
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 0 0.00 05.21
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 1,085 0.38 1,149-5.58
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 1,900 0.67 1,8343.59
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 283 0.10 537-47.29
50 Silk 0 0.00 05.19
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 23 0.01 36-35.18
52 Cotton 49 0.02 4413.10
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 10 0.00 11-9.14
54 Man-made filaments 46 0.02 452.94
55 Man-made staple fibers 43 0.01 3811.68
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 123 0.04 10912.86
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 6 0.00 521.24
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 9 0.00 647.14
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 51 0.02 479.49
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 13 0.00 1029.06
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 120 0.04 1190.92
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 149 0.05 161-7.29
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 68 0.02 646.09
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 175 0.06 15910.03
65 Headgear and parts thereof 12 0.00 12-1.74
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 1 0.00 127.50
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 1 0.00 17.33
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 348 0.12 3470.19
69 Ceramic products 236 0.08 21410.63
70 Glass and glassware 550 0.19 46219.02
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 8,906 3.12 7,88912.89
72 Iron and steel 14,122 4.95 15,251-7.41
73 Articles of iron or steel 2,264 0.79 2,320-2.43
74 Copper and articles thereof 3,313 1.16 4,470-25.90
75 Nickel and articles thereof 2,019 0.71 2,662-24.16
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 5,980 2.09 6,949-13.94
78 Lead and articles thereof 231 0.08 18127.76
79 Zinc and articles thereof 110 0.04 6958.78
80 Tin and articles thereof 7 0.00 7-3.26
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 719 0.25 741-2.91
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 168 0.06 1670.48
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 144 0.05 1366.31
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 6,801 2.38 8,704-21.87
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 4,050 1.42 3,47516.54
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 522 0.18 569-8.25
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 4,136 1.45 3,8268.10
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 1,294 0.45 1,887-31.44
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 1,429 0.50 1,24115.12
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 27 0.01 13102.31
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 1 0.00 1110.06
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 410 0.14 3924.40
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 104 0.04 106-2.40
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 235 0.08 2311.53
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 8 0.00 477.73
SS Classified 9,636 3.38 9 4631.82

Russia’s Imports

The major share of Russian imports in 2016 (and in 2015) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 44.26% of Russia’s total imports (42.91% in 2015);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 18.54% of Russia’s total imports (18.60% in 2015);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 13.66% of Russia’s total imports (14.54% in 2015);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 6.25% of Russia’s total imports (6.42% in 2015);
  • Textiles, textile products and footwear (HS codes 50-67) - 6.01% of Russia’s total imports (5.93% in 2015);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 1.85% of Russia’s total imports (1.99% in 2015);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 1.77% of Russia’s total imports (2.72% in 2015).

The largest gains in Russia’s imports in 2016 over 2015 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - an increase of $1,196 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s imports in 2016 over 2015 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - a decrease of $1,473 million;
  • Meat and edible meat offal (HS code 02) - a decrease of $837 million.
Russia’s imports in 2016 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of imports in 2016,
million US dollars
Percent share in total import Value of imports in 2015,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2016
over 2015
01 Live animals 169 0.09 236-28.46
02 Meat and edible meat offal 2,282 1.25 3,119-26.85
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 1,392 0.76 1,3562.68
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 2,135 1.17 2,0563.83
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 50 0.03 58-14.24
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 578 0.32 719-19.63
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 1,396 0.77 1,900-26.54
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 3,831 2.10 3,960-3.26
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 1,158 0.64 1,223-5.31
10 Cereals 344 0.19 3352.66
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 135 0.07 11715.01
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 1,670 0.92 1,5219.82
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 187 0.10 16811.52
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 4 0.00 335.52
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 1,088 0.60 1,0652.21
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 368 0.20 3553.90
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 485 0.27 598-19.01
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 971 0.53 992-2.12
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 675 0.37 739-8.67
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 1,074 0.59 1,087-1.13
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 1,157 0.63 1,1044.84
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 1,825 1.00 1,7911.86
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 770 0.42 947-18.66
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 1,158 0.64 1,1193.56
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 696 0.38 865-19.52
26 Ores, slag and ash 1,008 0.55 1,111-9.26
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 1,527 0.84 3,000-49.11
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 2,737 1.50 3,277-16.48
29 Organic chemicals 2,742 1.50 2,6473.62
30 Pharmaceutical products 8,908 4.89 8,6972.42
31 Fertilizers 78 0.04 754.02
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 1,605 0.88 1,644-2.35
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 2,600 1.43 2,631-1.17
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 1,200 0.66 1,231-2.52
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 583 0.32 5731.79
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 35 0.02 36-3.99
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 218 0.12 2037.49
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 2,760 1.51 2,6095.76
39 Plastics and articles thereof 7,542 4.14 7,642-1.31
40 Rubber and articles thereof 2,778 1.52 2,7082.59
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 46 0.03 3437.24
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 614 0.34 648-5.26
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 156 0.09 14011.29
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 602 0.33 712-15.49
45 Cork and articles of cork 41 0.02 396.40
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 15 0.01 17-8.79
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 125 0.07 132-5.72
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 2,256 1.24 2,310-2.36
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 340 0.19 416-18.41
50 Silk 4 0.00 320.93
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 19 0.01 21-8.91
52 Cotton 467 0.26 41811.68
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 39 0.02 41-5.98
54 Man-made filaments 371 0.20 413-10.02
55 Man-made staple fibers 483 0.27 4673.59
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 425 0.23 3996.51
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 133 0.07 144-7.61
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 85 0.05 92-6.90
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 277 0.15 2645.06
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 238 0.13 270-11.87
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 2,561 1.40 2,4205.81
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 2,700 1.48 2,6830.65
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 643 0.35 674-4.53
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 2,353 1.29 2,363-0.43
65 Headgear and parts thereof 107 0.06 115-6.90
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 15 0.01 19-18.17
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 30 0.02 35-15.25
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 685 0.38 738-7.23
69 Ceramic products 699 0.38 787-11.16
70 Glass and glassware 728 0.40 7210.95
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 439 0.24 604-27.44
72 Iron and steel 3,033 1.66 3,300-8.10
73 Articles of iron or steel 4,149 2.28 4,0901.43
74 Copper and articles thereof 473 0.26 4475.90
75 Nickel and articles thereof 92 0.05 7129.60
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 947 0.52 1,023-7.36
78 Lead and articles thereof 6 0.00 6-0.27
79 Zinc and articles thereof 85 0.05 798.26
80 Tin and articles thereof 24 0.01 28-15.34
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 203 0.11 241-15.78
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 1,286 0.71 1,334-3.64
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 1,092 0.60 1,112-1.85
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 35,361 19.40 34,1653.50
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 21,504 11.80 21,1181.83
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 391 0.21 420-6.82
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 15,741 8.64 15,4431.93
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 2,512 1.38 2,12618.15
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 5,163 2.83 5,1081.08
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 265 0.15 282-5.98
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 49 0.03 52-7.04
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 1,995 1.09 2,368-15.78
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 1,536 0.84 1,4575.43
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 1,049 0.58 1,064-1.48
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 6 0.00 11-39.60
SS Classified 5,685 3.12 3 67854.58
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Russian foreign trade statistics
Source: Federal Customs Service of Russia