Russian foreign trade
reports and reviews

Russian trade with Belgium in 2017

by Russian Foreign Trade
based on data from the Federal Customs Service of Russia
The Report on Russia’s foreign trade in goods with Belgium in 2017: exports, imports, products, dynamics.

Russia’s Trade with Belgium

In 2017, Russia’s trade with Belgium totaled $9,721,014,257, up 21.36% ($1,710,977,673) from 2016.

Russia’s exports to Belgium in 2017 totaled $6,799,918,374, up 18.44% ($1,058,861,193) from 2016.

Russia’s imports from Belgium in 2017 totaled $2,921,095,883, up 28.74% ($652,116,480) from 2016.

Russia’s trade surplus with Belgium in 2017 was $3,878,822,491, a 11.71% increase ($406,744,713) over 2016.

Belgium was Russia’s 16th largest trading partner in 2017 (just as in 2016), accounting for 1.6644% of Russia’s total trade (down from 1.7125% in 2016).

Belgium was Russia’s 15th largest export market in 2017 (just as in 2016), accounting for 1.9043% of Russia’s total exports (down from 2.0109% in 2016).

Belgium was Russia’s 20th largest supplier in 2017 (just as in 2016), accounting for 1.2870% of Russia’s total imports (up from 1.2449% in 2016).

Russia’s Exports to Belgium

The major share of Russian exports to Belgium in 2017 (and in 2016) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 42.38% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (48.92% in 2016);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 32.83% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (26.68% in 2016);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 15.22% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (14.36% in 2016);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 5.13% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (5.61% in 2016);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 1.53% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (1.52% in 2016);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 1.44% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (1.58% in 2016);
  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 1.07% of Russia’s total exports to Belgium (0.91% in 2016).

The largest gains in Russia’s exports to Belgium in 2017 over 2016 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - an increase of $655,786,666;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - an increase of $300,220,439;
  • Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin (HS code 71) - an increase of $73,646,172;
  • Ores, slag and ash (HS code 26) - an increase of $45,193,240;
  • Rubber and articles thereof (HS code 40) - an increase of $25,874,139;
  • Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (HS code 44) - an increase of $25,108,024;
  • Fertilizers (HS code 31) - an increase of $23,948,465.

The largest declines in Russia’s exports to Belgium in 2017 over 2016 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Copper and articles thereof (HS code 74) - a decrease of $57,822,743;
  • Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes (HS code 28) - a decrease of $41,559,068;
  • Aluminum and articles thereof (HS code 76) - a decrease of $27,038,094.
Russia’s exports to Belgium in 2017 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of exports
in 2017,
US dollars ($)
Percent share in total export Value of exports
in 2016,
US dollars ($)
Percent change
in 2017
over 2016
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 3,355,367 0.05 6,690,749-49.85
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 0 0.00 3,280-100.00
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 183,140 0.00 241,706-24.23
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 1,420,649 0.02 502,709182.60
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 21,665 0.00 97,991-77.89
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 37,231 0.00 87,145-57.28
10 Cereals 7,735,754 0.11 2,657,605191.08
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 190,467 0.00 75,683151.66
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 75,925,359 1.12 70,161,6488.21
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 126,959 0.00 17,640619.72
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 1,187,361 0.02 2,017,839-41.16
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 3,790,617 0.06 782,445384.46
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 756,694 0.01 0
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 0 0.00 87,194-100.00
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 63,360 0.00 0
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 301,615 0.00 274,5419.86
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 2,851,940 0.04 6,750,084-57.75
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 108,670,631 1.60 109,188,597-0.47
26 Ores, slag and ash 91,300,101 1.34 46,106,86198.02
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 2,032,196,624 29.89 1,376,409,95847.64
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 124,736,610 1.83 166,295,678-24.99
29 Organic chemicals 30,057,607 0.44 26,566,22313.14
30 Pharmaceutical products 752,502 0.01 18,9373,873.71
31 Fertilizers 68,770,118 1.01 44,821,65353.43
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 190,276 0.00 125,73151.34
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 1,408,135 0.02 1,562,651-9.89
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 240,551 0.00 2,887,700-91.67
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 24,812 0.00 1,881,745-98.68
39 Plastics and articles thereof 54,917,293 0.81 36,035,59152.40
40 Rubber and articles thereof 67,921,507 1.00 42,047,36861.54
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 34,547 0.00 0
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 17,215 0.00 4,557277.77
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 69,494,568 1.02 44,386,54456.57
45 Cork and articles of cork 14 0.00 84-83.33
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 6,822,852 0.10 8,042,124-15.16
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 27,963,956 0.41 34,826,814-19.71
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 23,743 0.00 14,22966.86
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 2,267 0.00 133,138-98.30
55 Man-made staple fibers 21 0.00 0
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 1,555,452 0.02 2,34366,287.20
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 291 0.00 448-35.04
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 42,093 0.00 0
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 402 0.00 13,899-97.11
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 22,707 0.00 2,534796.09
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 3,288 0.00 390743.08
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 5,924 0.00 36,595-83.81
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 2,941 0.00 47,746-93.84
65 Headgear and parts thereof 48 0.00 0
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 37 0.00 0
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 1,768,716 0.03 332,555431.86
69 Ceramic products 315,825 0.00 20,2511,459.55
70 Glass and glassware 22,206,656 0.33 22,637,385-1.90
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 2,882,005,117 42.38 2,808,358,9452.62
72 Iron and steel 964,039,346 14.18 663,818,90745.23
73 Articles of iron or steel 5,268,610 0.08 2,893,28782.10
74 Copper and articles thereof 61,673,605 0.91 119,496,348-48.39
75 Nickel and articles thereof 0 0.00 8,796,692-100.00
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 1,565,453 0.02 28,603,547-94.53
78 Lead and articles thereof 1,976,664 0.03 208,262849.12
79 Zinc and articles thereof 3,093 0.00 4,082-24.23
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 249,565 0.00 626,539-60.17
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 32,084 0.00 153,699-79.13
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 106,742 0.00 65,88162.02
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 49,439,657 0.73 34,155,32544.75
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 2,670,785 0.04 3,359,603-20.50
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 111,835 0.00 56,56497.71
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 7,384,567 0.11 12,082,162-38.88
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 8,176,058 0.12 0
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 5,079,085 0.07 2,682,17089.36
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 67 0.00 288-76.74
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 2,410 0.00 0
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 566,085 0.01 420,11634.74
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 93,671 0.00 232,553-59.72
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 14,917 0.00 126,297-88.19
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 13,889 0.00 16,690-16.78
SS Classified 26,561 0.00 6364,076.26

Russia’s Imports from Belgium

The major share of Russian imports from Belgium in 2017 (and in 2016) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 39.38% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (45.78% in 2016);
  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 37.58% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (26.87% in 2016);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 7.00% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (7.73% in 2016);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 5.07% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (6.05% in 2016);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 3.80% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (4.48% in 2016);
  • Textiles, textile products and footwear (HS codes 50-67) - 3.26% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (2.84% in 2016);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 1.39% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (1.66% in 2016);
  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 0.19% of Russia’s total imports from Belgium (1.06% in 2016).

The largest gains in Russia’s imports from Belgium in 2017 over 2016 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - an increase of $410,720,912;
  • Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof (HS code 87) - an increase of $52,928,260;
  • Organic chemicals (HS code 29) - an increase of $34,301,119;
  • Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles (HS code 85) - an increase of $24,664,978;
  • Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics (HS code 32) - an increase of $17,335,399;
  • Pharmaceutical products (HS code 30) - an increase of $16,870,550;
  • Plastics and articles thereof (HS code 39) - an increase of $16,080,292;
  • Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations (HS code 33) - an increase of $11,968,944;
  • Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster (HS code 34) - an increase of $10,364,889;
  • Beverages, spirits and vinegar (HS code 22) - an increase of $9,803,351;
  • Articles of iron or steel (HS code 73) - an increase of $9,793,339;
  • Ores, slag and ash (HS code 26) - an increase of $8,945,231.

The largest declines in Russia’s imports from Belgium in 2017 over 2016 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin (HS code 71) - a decrease of $18,616,896;
  • Glass and glassware (HS code 70) - a decrease of $9,180,489.
Russia’s imports from Belgium in 2017 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of imports in 2017,
US dollars ($)
Percent share in total import Value of imports in 2016,
US dollars ($)
Percent change
in 2017
over 2016
01 Live animals 1,449,840 0.05 1,487,449-2.53
02 Meat and edible meat offal 91,903 0.00 94,306-2.55
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 1,060,844 0.04 2,199,381-51.77
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 41,188 0.00 10,383296.69
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 7,310,432 0.25 6,302,87815.99
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 83,152 0.00 285,214-70.85
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 28,447 0.00 26,0399.25
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 3,098,067 0.11 3,104,755-0.22
10 Cereals 3,451 0.00 3,636-5.09
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 6,327,464 0.22 4,620,03336.96
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 21,450,037 0.73 22,137,440-3.11
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 713,021 0.02 680,6594.75
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 457 0.00 31346.01
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 16,136,909 0.55 14,007,57715.20
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 2,275,094 0.08 2,177,7234.47
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 10,674,786 0.37 12,383,796-13.80
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 34,841,159 1.19 27,288,73327.68
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 22,044,477 0.75 20,403,5678.04
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 11,688,020 0.40 9,584,90321.94
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 10,828,973 0.37 9,054,47419.60
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 27,955,859 0.96 18,152,50854.01
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 25,590,580 0.88 20,802,13423.02
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 897,763 0.03 662,64035.48
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 735,628 0.03 1,305,614-43.66
26 Ores, slag and ash 9,899,202 0.34 953,971937.68
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 100,340,233 3.44 99,447,3900.90
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 14,721,759 0.50 9,058,50662.52
29 Organic chemicals 160,859,927 5.51 126,558,80827.10
30 Pharmaceutical products 210,392,831 7.20 193,522,2818.72
31 Fertilizers 6,270,305 0.21 5,087,88923.24
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 77,637,509 2.66 60,302,11028.75
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 78,026,736 2.67 66,057,79218.12
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 104,500,005 3.58 94,135,11611.01
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 17,957,747 0.61 17,885,3620.40
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 0 0.00 36-100.00
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 31,532,779 1.08 29,569,1976.64
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 152,035,791 5.20 157,952,113-3.75
39 Plastics and articles thereof 274,133,916 9.38 258,053,6246.23
40 Rubber and articles thereof 22,223,790 0.76 20,632,2607.71
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 15,745 0.00 5,909166.46
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 852,388 0.03 679,21625.50
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 4,876 0.00 2,90667.79
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 15,598,871 0.53 13,873,36412.44
45 Cork and articles of cork 31 0.00 13,925-99.78
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 2,960 0.00 545443.12
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 3,355 0.00 0
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 16,615,820 0.57 15,455,5487.51
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 8,300,952 0.28 8,262,4430.47
50 Silk 19,683 0.00 18,0309.17
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 45,348 0.00 34,07033.10
52 Cotton 144,982 0.00 191,202-24.17
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 366,234 0.01 276,19732.60
54 Man-made filaments 7,622,364 0.26 3,184,936139.33
55 Man-made staple fibers 9,286,530 0.32 2,766,998235.62
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 6,899,110 0.24 5,421,94927.24
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 27,966,330 0.96 21,776,74128.42
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 562,134 0.02 462,48621.55
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 9,846,596 0.34 8,799,47811.90
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 4,997,823 0.17 765,233553.11
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 614,117 0.02 223,516174.75
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 774,091 0.03 630,91222.69
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 26,115,539 0.89 19,928,66431.05
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 47,061 0.00 12,602273.44
65 Headgear and parts thereof 8,053 0.00 5,45047.76
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 4,152 0.00 9,617-56.83
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 5,442 0.00 6,877-20.87
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 9,452,228 0.32 13,184,614-28.31
69 Ceramic products 7,878,482 0.27 7,760,2261.52
70 Glass and glassware 20,400,637 0.70 29,581,126-31.03
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 5,496,004 0.19 24,112,900-77.21
72 Iron and steel 98,052,817 3.36 99,993,199-1.94
73 Articles of iron or steel 31,868,801 1.09 22,075,46244.36
74 Copper and articles thereof 2,061,431 0.07 2,236,518-7.83
75 Nickel and articles thereof 651,911 0.02 366,24178.00
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 4,939,826 0.17 3,562,94738.64
78 Lead and articles thereof 0 0.00 13,722-100.00
79 Zinc and articles thereof 934,696 0.03 569,59664.10
80 Tin and articles thereof 335,256 0.01 2,523,808-86.72
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 2,981,364 0.10 536,423455.79
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 2,281,901 0.08 1,837,15024.21
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 3,899,791 0.13 3,667,5866.33
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 834,059,516 28.55 423,338,60497.02
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 88,096,256 3.02 63,431,27838.88
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 517,643 0.02 1,254,489-58.74
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 156,215,679 5.35 103,287,41951.24
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 2,826,646 0.10 493,054473.29
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 16,174,116 0.55 17,962,417-9.96
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 44,163 0.00 2,1271,976.30
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 147 0.00 171-14.04
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 3,276,608 0.11 4,359,881-24.85
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 4,191,928 0.14 5,661,805-25.96
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 21,757,416 0.74 18,155,98819.84
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 66,128 0.00 113,963-41.97
SS Classified 53,824 0.00 95 265-43.50
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Russian foreign trade statistics
Source: Federal Customs Service of Russia