Russian foreign trade
reports and reviews

Russian foreign trade in 2018

by Russian Foreign Trade
based on data from the Federal Customs Service of Russia
The Report on Russia’s foreign trade in goods in 2018: turnover, exports, imports, products, dynamics.

Russia’s Trade

In 2018, Russia’s trade totaled $688,115 million, up 17.82% ($104,066 million) from 2017.

Russia’s exports in 2018 totaled $449,964 million, up 26.01% ($92,881 million) from 2017.

Russia’s imports in 2018 totaled $238,151 million, up 4.93% ($11,185 million) from 2017.

Russia’s trade surplus in 2018 was $211,812 million, a 62.79% increase ($81,696 million) over 2017.

Russia’s Exports

The major share of Russian exports in 2018 (and in 2017) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 64.79% of Russia’s total exports (60.37% in 2017);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 9.88% of Russia’s total exports (10.43% in 2017);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 6.09% of Russia’s total exports (6.70% in 2017);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 5.53% of Russia’s total exports (5.80% in 2017);
  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 5.13% of Russia’s total exports (6.02% in 2017);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 3.10% of Russia’s total exports (3.31% in 2017);
  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 2.24% of Russia’s total exports (3.09% in 2017).

The largest gains in Russia’s exports in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - an increase of $75,293 million;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - an increase of $4,596 million;
  • Cereals (HS code 10) - an increase of $2,930 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s exports in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • No product groups with a substantial decrease.
Russia’s exports in 2018 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of exports
in 2018,
million US dollars
Percent share in total export Value of exports
in 2017,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2018
over 2017
01 Live animals 43 0.01 3138.56
02 Meat and edible meat offal 407 0.09 32425.79
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 4,282 0.95 3,48222.97
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 252 0.06 260-2.76
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 101 0.02 8814.53
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 3 0.00 4-21.19
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 407 0.09 495-17.79
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 111 0.02 1037.47
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 161 0.04 1582.21
10 Cereals 10,458 2.32 7,52738.93
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 262 0.06 22914.71
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 763 0.17 64119.02
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 12 0.00 116.66
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 9 0.00 737.03
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 2,669 0.59 2,714-1.64
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 182 0.04 1688.28
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 415 0.09 490-15.31
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 640 0.14 55415.68
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 579 0.13 5583.86
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 297 0.07 25914.72
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 672 0.15 6257.60
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 555 0.12 49911.29
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 1,084 0.24 86625.29
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 519 0.12 616-15.75
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 1,122 0.25 1,0427.72
26 Ores, slag and ash 3,673 0.82 3,07019.62
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 286,740 63.73 211,44735.61
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 5,251 1.17 4,19725.12
29 Organic chemicals 4,200 0.93 3,23729.75
30 Pharmaceutical products 792 0.18 7288.77
31 Fertilizers 8,226 1.83 7,21713.97
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 317 0.07 3044.28
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 684 0.15 6574.07
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 508 0.11 737-31.02
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 48 0.01 4312.39
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 130 0.03 149-12.35
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 11 0.00 916.95
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 882 0.20 70525.12
39 Plastics and articles thereof 3,172 0.70 2,81412.71
40 Rubber and articles thereof 3,162 0.70 3,1380.79
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 141 0.03 161-12.33
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 52 0.01 4612.75
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 62 0.01 79-21.48
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 9,034 2.01 7,90214.33
45 Cork and articles of cork 1 0.00 144.36
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 0 0.00 08.09
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 1,655 0.37 1,22934.71
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 2,738 0.61 2,19724.61
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 515 0.11 4924.80
50 Silk 0 0.00 0134.43
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 23 0.01 26-12.01
52 Cotton 54 0.01 63-15.60
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 11 0.00 840.84
54 Man-made filaments 69 0.02 5622.21
55 Man-made staple fibers 63 0.01 65-2.81
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 160 0.04 14113.46
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 10 0.00 824.47
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 11 0.00 117.53
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 64 0.01 5418.57
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 18 0.00 1432.75
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 173 0.04 1617.62
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 202 0.04 1981.79
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 92 0.02 849.23
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 231 0.05 18326.19
65 Headgear and parts thereof 14 0.00 1312.83
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 1 0.00 146.11
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 3 0.00 2113.55
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 527 0.12 42723.30
69 Ceramic products 310 0.07 2839.64
70 Glass and glassware 744 0.17 67310.55
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 10,098 2.24 11,048-8.61
72 Iron and steel 23,358 5.19 18,76224.49
73 Articles of iron or steel 4,076 0.91 3,44118.44
74 Copper and articles thereof 5,372 1.19 4,70914.08
75 Nickel and articles thereof 2,607 0.58 2,05826.66
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 6,556 1.46 6,673-1.77
78 Lead and articles thereof 240 0.05 276-12.93
79 Zinc and articles thereof 96 0.02 128-25.50
80 Tin and articles thereof 42 0.01 6589.66
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 1,149 0.26 81740.52
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 796 0.18 213272.75
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 176 0.04 1665.85
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 9,171 2.04 8,5417.37
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 4,912 1.09 4,32213.65
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 887 0.20 61843.42
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 4,250 0.94 4,292-0.98
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 2,128 0.47 1,85814.52
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 1,739 0.39 1,877-7.35
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 22 0.00 24-11.01
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 5 0.00 1248.99
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 568 0.13 49414.82
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 165 0.04 13719.91
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 297 0.07 424-30.02
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 9 0.00 643.69
SS Classified 10,464 2.33 11 409-8.29

Russia’s Imports

The major share of Russian imports in 2018 (and in 2017) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 44.58% of Russia’s total imports (45.62% in 2017);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 18.29% of Russia’s total imports (17.74% in 2017);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 12.44% of Russia’s total imports (12.70% in 2017);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 7.16% of Russia’s total imports (6.89% in 2017);
  • Textiles, textile products and footwear (HS codes 50-67) - 6.22% of Russia’s total imports (5.97% in 2017);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 2.09% of Russia’s total imports (1.95% in 2017);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 1.64% of Russia’s total imports (1.59% in 2017).

The largest gains in Russia’s imports in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles (HS code 85) - an increase of $3,182 million;
  • Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof (HS code 87) - an increase of $2,232 million;
  • Plastics and articles thereof (HS code 39) - an increase of $997 million;
  • Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes (HS code 28) - an increase of $929 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s imports in 2018 over 2017 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - a decrease of $1,687 million;
  • Ships, boats and floating structures (HS code 89) - a decrease of $1,585 million.
Russia’s imports in 2018 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of imports in 2018,
million US dollars
Percent share in total import Value of imports in 2017,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2018
over 2017
01 Live animals 308 0.13 20848.04
02 Meat and edible meat offal 2,066 0.87 2,670-22.65
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 1,802 0.76 1,62610.80
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 2,335 0.98 2,630-11.22
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 98 0.04 7825.75
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 599 0.25 5685.49
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 1,843 0.77 1,7952.71
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 5,077 2.13 4,6788.53
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 1,188 0.50 1,272-6.58
10 Cereals 328 0.14 358-8.47
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 123 0.05 129-4.16
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 1,891 0.79 1,8164.16
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 238 0.10 20018.83
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 5 0.00 5-4.82
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 1,340 0.56 1,21210.56
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 569 0.24 48018.40
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 406 0.17 4011.20
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 1,180 0.50 1,04912.52
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 954 0.40 81616.90
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 1,286 0.54 1,1828.84
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 1,393 0.58 1,3503.18
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 2,682 1.13 2,4937.58
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 946 0.40 8669.25
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 976 0.41 9384.02
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 790 0.33 7840.73
26 Ores, slag and ash 1,918 0.81 1,58620.98
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 2,266 0.95 2,0649.75
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 3,902 1.64 2,97331.26
29 Organic chemicals 4,104 1.72 3,51616.74
30 Pharmaceutical products 10,582 4.44 10,835-2.33
31 Fertilizers 120 0.05 131-8.30
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 1,926 0.81 1,8166.03
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 3,339 1.40 3,1137.26
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 1,504 0.63 1,3709.79
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 702 0.29 6704.72
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 54 0.02 4520.47
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 294 0.12 2679.99
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 3,391 1.42 3,1697.01
39 Plastics and articles thereof 9,763 4.10 8,76611.38
40 Rubber and articles thereof 3,873 1.63 3,5897.92
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 58 0.02 60-3.90
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 943 0.40 77821.19
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 268 0.11 290-7.54
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 707 0.30 6587.49
45 Cork and articles of cork 44 0.02 3910.80
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 17 0.01 169.47
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 140 0.06 1354.06
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 2,653 1.11 2,40510.33
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 346 0.15 3450.32
50 Silk 4 0.00 4-1.70
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 41 0.02 3516.84
52 Cotton 592 0.25 52313.31
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 42 0.02 42-0.33
54 Man-made filaments 515 0.22 41623.62
55 Man-made staple fibers 628 0.26 55313.58
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 466 0.20 4435.24
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 214 0.09 18515.40
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 128 0.05 10423.32
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 369 0.15 32712.84
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 302 0.13 24622.61
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 3,355 1.41 3,1815.46
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 3,707 1.56 3,3949.22
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 810 0.34 73110.72
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 3,430 1.44 3,1758.03
65 Headgear and parts thereof 155 0.07 13416.09
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 28 0.01 2040.10
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 39 0.02 3416.03
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 1,014 0.43 82023.69
69 Ceramic products 973 0.41 86812.09
70 Glass and glassware 904 0.38 8299.03
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 762 0.32 57233.07
72 Iron and steel 5,287 2.22 4,8269.55
73 Articles of iron or steel 5,806 2.44 5,3059.45
74 Copper and articles thereof 789 0.33 803-1.72
75 Nickel and articles thereof 109 0.05 1026.96
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 1,228 0.52 1,237-0.68
78 Lead and articles thereof 14 0.01 7111.06
79 Zinc and articles thereof 68 0.03 103-34.49
80 Tin and articles thereof 27 0.01 33-18.33
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 455 0.19 30150.98
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 1,672 0.70 1,5458.24
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 1,600 0.67 1,37216.62
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 43,601 18.31 45,288-3.72
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 29,916 12.56 26,73411.90
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 511 0.21 579-11.73
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 23,742 9.97 21,51110.37
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 1,647 0.69 3,232-49.04
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 6,747 2.83 6,1938.95
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 341 0.14 28917.93
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 83 0.03 6528.40
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 2,872 1.21 2,7036.25
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 2,063 0.87 1,8799.79
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 1,148 0.48 1,1252.03
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 32 0.01 1876.73
SS Classified 6,577 2.76 6 841-3.87
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Russian foreign trade statistics
Source: Federal Customs Service of Russia