Russian foreign trade
reports and reviews

Russian foreign trade in 2021

by Russian Foreign Trade
based on data from the Federal Customs Service of Russia
The Report on Russia’s foreign trade in goods in 2021: turnover, exports, imports, products, dynamics.

Russia’s Trade

In 2021, Russia’s trade totaled $785,000 million, up 38.25% ($217,177 million) from 2020.

Russia’s exports in 2021 totaled $491,580 million, up 46.13% ($155,186 million) from 2020.

Russia’s imports in 2021 totaled $293,420 million, up 26.79% ($61,990 million) from 2020.

Russia’s trade surplus in 2021 was $198,160 million, a 88.79% increase ($93,196 million) over 2020.

Russia’s Exports

The major share of Russian exports in 2021 (and in 2020) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 57.40% of Russia’s total exports (51.19% in 2020);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 10.65% of Russia’s total exports (10.37% in 2020);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 7.85% of Russia’s total exports (7.11% in 2020);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 7.48% of Russia’s total exports (8.80% in 2020);
  • Precious metals and stones (HS code 71) - 6.58% of Russia’s total exports (9.03% in 2020);
  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 5.35% of Russia’s total exports (5.73% in 2020);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 3.54% of Russia’s total exports (3.68% in 2020).

The largest gains in Russia’s exports in 2021 over 2020 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes (HS code 27) - an increase of $100,080 million;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - an increase of $12,874 million;
  • Fertilizers (HS code 31) - an increase of $5,496 million;
  • Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal (HS code 44) - an increase of $3,521 million;
  • Aluminum and articles thereof (HS code 76) - an increase of $3,288 million;
  • Ores, slag and ash (HS code 26) - an increase of $3,092 million;
  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - an increase of $2,457 million;
  • Plastics and articles thereof (HS code 39) - an increase of $2,400 million;
  • Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes (HS code 15) - an increase of $2,036 million;
  • Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes (HS code 28) - an increase of $1,974 million;
  • Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles (HS code 85) - an increase of $1,766 million;
  • Pharmaceutical products (HS code 30) - an increase of $1,608 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s exports in 2021 over 2020 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • No product groups with a substantial decrease.
Russia’s exports in 2021 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of exports
in 2021,
million US dollars
Percent share in total export Value of exports
in 2020,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2021
over 2020
01 Live animals 52 0.01 57-7.64
02 Meat and edible meat offal 1,160 0.24 88231.45
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 5,850 1.19 4,63726.16
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 381 0.08 30425.67
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 119 0.02 9722.99
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 5 0.00 434.18
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 818 0.17 48967.27
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 154 0.03 13711.93
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 231 0.05 19220.43
10 Cereals 11,370 2.31 10,12612.29
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 474 0.10 35932.12
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 1,245 0.25 1,735-28.28
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 11 0.00 105.45
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 16 0.00 18-11.95
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 6,306 1.28 4,27147.67
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 305 0.06 23231.86
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 564 0.11 737-23.49
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 878 0.18 74318.22
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 927 0.19 75622.61
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 494 0.10 41419.36
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 1,073 0.22 82130.79
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 824 0.17 62731.39
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 2,060 0.42 1,43044.09
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 586 0.12 5408.63
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 1,109 0.23 92220.28
26 Ores, slag and ash 7,412 1.51 4,32071.59
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 267,035 54.32 166,95559.94
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 6,032 1.23 4,05848.64
29 Organic chemicals 3,452 0.70 2,47839.31
30 Pharmaceutical products 2,661 0.54 1,053152.78
31 Fertilizers 12,501 2.54 7,00578.45
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 416 0.08 34022.40
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 991 0.20 86614.40
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 641 0.13 55315.92
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 74 0.02 5926.69
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 0 0.00 139-100.00
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 16 0.00 1322.90
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 1,168 0.24 95222.73
39 Plastics and articles thereof 6,176 1.26 3,77663.57
40 Rubber and articles thereof 3,562 0.72 2,62435.75
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 79 0.02 5739.64
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 72 0.01 6312.93
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 57 0.01 4043.90
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 11,839 2.41 8,31842.33
45 Cork and articles of cork 2 0.00 212.68
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 1 0.00 137.11
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 1,406 0.29 1,09628.32
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 3,157 0.64 2,42030.45
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 580 0.12 5476.05
50 Silk 0 0.00 083.26
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 18 0.00 1342.62
52 Cotton 65 0.01 607.53
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 17 0.00 8100.21
54 Man-made filaments 108 0.02 7348.98
55 Man-made staple fibers 69 0.01 5720.78
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 195 0.04 1874.49
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 20 0.00 1444.17
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 18 0.00 1433.42
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 101 0.02 6751.48
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 49 0.01 3638.47
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 318 0.06 26121.77
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 296 0.06 26910.07
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 164 0.03 1621.70
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 254 0.05 2396.07
65 Headgear and parts thereof 25 0.01 1747.73
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 2 0.00 225.98
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 5 0.00 58.91
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 648 0.13 51825.15
69 Ceramic products 392 0.08 31922.96
70 Glass and glassware 932 0.19 70232.73
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 31,597 6.43 30,3604.07
72 Iron and steel 28,881 5.88 16,00780.43
73 Articles of iron or steel 3,990 0.81 3,40217.29
74 Copper and articles thereof 5,980 1.22 5,6465.93
75 Nickel and articles thereof 1,996 0.41 3,024-34.00
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 8,751 1.78 5,46360.18
78 Lead and articles thereof 264 0.05 17451.34
79 Zinc and articles thereof 11 0.00 39-72.23
80 Tin and articles thereof 20 0.00 1350.19
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 694 0.14 710-2.28
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 249 0.05 19826.01
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 290 0.06 20143.89
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 10,832 2.20 8,37529.34
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 6,157 1.25 4,39140.23
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 1,199 0.24 80449.18
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 3,884 0.79 3,48111.58
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 1,911 0.39 734160.35
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 1,689 0.34 1,47914.20
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 23 0.00 38-39.27
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 16 0.00 1318.75
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 918 0.19 64043.49
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 277 0.06 20932.49
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 410 0.08 33123.68
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 6 0.00 511.40
SS Classified 0 0.00 9 365-100.00

Russia’s Imports

The major share of Russian imports in 2021 (and in 2020) was accounted for the following product types:

  • Machinery, equipment and vehicles (HS codes 84-90) - 47.26% of Russia’s total imports (44.35% in 2020);
  • Chemical products (HS codes 28-40) - 19.06% of Russia’s total imports (18.32% in 2020);
  • Food products and agricultural raw materials (HS codes 01-24) - 12.05% of Russia’s total imports (12.84% in 2020);
  • Metals and products from them (HS codes 72-83) - 7.22% of Russia’s total imports (6.84% in 2020);
  • Textiles, textile products and footwear (HS codes 50-67) - 6.03% of Russia’s total imports (6.31% in 2020);
  • Mineral products (HS codes 25-27) - 1.98% of Russia’s total imports (1.90% in 2020);
  • Wood and wood products (HS codes 44-49) - 1.47% of Russia’s total imports (1.49% in 2020).

The largest gains in Russia’s imports in 2021 over 2020 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof (HS code 84) - an increase of $11,207 million;
  • Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof (HS code 87) - an increase of $8,358 million;
  • Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles (HS code 85) - an increase of $6,606 million;
  • Ships, boats and floating structures (HS code 89) - an increase of $3,797 million;
  • Plastics and articles thereof (HS code 39) - an increase of $3,339 million;
  • Pharmaceutical products (HS code 30) - an increase of $2,984 million;
  • Iron and steel (HS code 72) - an increase of $2,194 million;
  • Organic chemicals (HS code 29) - an increase of $1,280 million;
  • Rubber and articles thereof (HS code 40) - an increase of $1,218 million;
  • Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings (HS code 94) - an increase of $1,092 million;
  • Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted (HS code 61) - an increase of $959 million.

The largest declines in Russia’s imports in 2021 over 2020 were recorded for the following product groups:

  • No product groups with a substantial decrease.
Russia’s imports in 2021 by product groups
HS
code
Name of product group Value of imports in 2021,
million US dollars
Percent share in total import Value of imports in 2020,
million US dollars
Percent change
in 2021
over 2020
01 Live animals 197 0.07 215-8.24
02 Meat and edible meat offal 1,497 0.51 1,4374.20
03 Fish and crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates 2,137 0.73 1,68227.03
04 Dairy produce; birds eggs; natural honey; edible products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 2,948 1.00 2,8981.71
05 Products of animal origin, not elsewhere specified or included 81 0.03 81-0.48
06 Live trees and other plants; bulbs, roots and the like; cut flowers and ornamental foliage 793 0.27 52451.20
07 Edible vegetables and certain roots and tubers 1,834 0.63 1,7296.09
08 Edible fruit and nuts; peel of citrus fruit or melons 5,790 1.97 5,6382.70
09 Coffee, tea, maté and spices 1,354 0.46 1,18414.35
10 Cereals 269 0.09 328-17.91
11 Products of the milling industry; malt; starches; inulin; wheat gluten 158 0.05 11339.64
12 Oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; miscellaneous grains, seeds and fruits; industrial or medicinal plants; straw and fodder 2,344 0.80 1,86925.39
13 Lac; gums, resins and other vegetable saps and extracts 250 0.09 21715.38
14 Vegetable plaiting materials; vegetable products not elsewhere specified or included 17 0.01 1149.89
15 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage products prepared edible fats; animal or vegetable waxes 2,158 0.74 1,40253.92
16 Preparations of meat, of fish or of crustaceans, molluscs or other aquatic invertebrates 631 0.22 53617.74
17 Sugars and sugar confectionery 398 0.14 31526.54
18 Cocoa and cocoa preparations 1,403 0.48 1,22214.79
19 Preparations of cereals, flour, starch or milk; bakers’ wares 955 0.33 85212.04
20 Preparations of vegetables, fruit, nuts or other parts of plants 1,361 0.46 1,17415.93
21 Miscellaneous edible preparations 1,737 0.59 1,50115.69
22 Beverages, spirits and vinegar 3,363 1.15 2,83218.76
23 Residues and waste from the food industries; prepared animal feed 1,425 0.49 1,11627.74
24 Tobacco and manufactured tobacco substitutes 841 0.29 842-0.10
25 Salt; sulfur; earths and stone; plastering materials, lime and cement 767 0.26 62722.35
26 Ores, slag and ash 2,377 0.81 1,93322.97
27 Mineral fuels, mineral oils and products of their distillation; bituminous substances; mineral waxes 2,421 0.83 1,84831.03
28 Inorganic chemicals; organic or inorganic compounds of precious metals, of rare-earth metals,of radioactive elements or of isotopes 3,675 1.25 3,13317.27
29 Organic chemicals 5,853 1.99 4,57228.00
30 Pharmaceutical products 13,793 4.70 10,80927.61
31 Fertilizers 168 0.06 11941.39
32 Tanning or dyeing extracts; dyes, pigments, paints, varnishes, putty and mastics 2,141 0.73 1,82817.14
33 Essential oils and resinoids; perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations 3,725 1.27 2,96525.63
34 Soap, organic surface-active agents, washing preparations, lubricating preparations, artificial waxes, prepared waxes, polishing or scouring preparations, candles and similar articles, modeling pastes, "dental waxes" and dental preparations with a basis of plaster 1,729 0.59 1,49915.41
35 Albuminoidal substances; modified starches; glues; enzymes 927 0.32 75223.25
36 Explosives; pyrotechnic products; matches; pyrophoric alloys; certain combustible preparations 0 0.00 40-100.00
37 Photographic or cinematographic goods 297 0.10 24919.51
38 Miscellaneous chemical products 3,858 1.31 3,47311.09
39 Plastics and articles thereof 12,688 4.32 9,34935.71
40 Rubber and articles thereof 4,833 1.65 3,61633.68
41 Raw hides and skins (other than furskins) and leather 51 0.02 4512.65
42 Articles of leather; saddlery and harness; travel goods, handbags and similar containers; articles of animal gut (other than silkworm gut) 1,113 0.38 82235.46
43 Furskins and artificial fur; manufactures thereof 137 0.05 11519.05
44 Wood and articles of wood; wood charcoal 805 0.27 62029.77
45 Cork and articles of cork 40 0.01 41-2.49
46 Manufactures of straw, of esparto or of other plaiting materials; basketware and wickerwork 23 0.01 1734.86
47 Pulp of wood or of other fibrous cellulosic material; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard 246 0.08 16746.82
48 Paper and paperboard; articles of paper pulp, of paper or of paperboard 2,701 0.92 2,30617.16
49 Printed books, newspapers, pictures and other products of the printing industry; manuscripts, typescripts and plans 339 0.12 28817.69
50 Silk 4 0.00 361.75
51 Wool, fine or coarse animal hair; horsehair yarn and woven fabric 34 0.01 3110.19
52 Cotton 741 0.25 53339.21
53 Other vegetable textile fibers; paper yarn and woven fabric of paper yarn 50 0.02 4025.20
54 Man-made filaments 625 0.21 48728.37
55 Man-made staple fibers 696 0.24 53330.53
56 Wadding, felt and nonwovens; special yarns, twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof 592 0.20 52412.96
57 Carpets and other textile floor coverings 250 0.09 20124.48
58 Special woven fabrics; tufted textile fabrics; lace, tapestries; trimmings; embroidery 166 0.06 12136.78
59 Impregnated, coated, covered or laminated textile fabrics; textile articles of a kind suitable for industrial use 455 0.16 34034.00
60 Knitted or crocheted fabrics 504 0.17 38929.44
61 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, knitted or crocheted 4,005 1.37 3,04731.48
62 Articles of apparel and clothing accessories, not knitted or crocheted 3,931 1.34 3,8641.74
63 Other made up textile articles; sets; worn clothing and worn textile articles; rags 1,000 0.34 1,403-28.74
64 Footwear, gaiters and the like; parts of such articles 3,650 1.24 2,88426.57
65 Headgear and parts thereof 196 0.07 14535.46
66 Umbrellas, sun umbrellas, walking sticks, seatsticks, whips, riding-crops and parts thereof 27 0.01 2033.76
67 Prepared feathers and down and articles made of feathers or of down; artificial flowers; articles of human hair 58 0.02 4044.19
68 Articles of stone, plaster, cement, asbestos, mica or similar materials 966 0.33 86212.05
69 Ceramic products 1,161 0.40 93723.97
70 Glass and glassware 1,151 0.39 92124.96
71 Natural or cultured pearls, precious or semi-precious stones,precious metals, metals clad with precious metal and articles thereof; imitation jewelry; coin 1,144 0.39 79244.32
72 Iron and steel 5,932 2.02 3,73858.69
73 Articles of iron or steel 6,444 2.20 5,60315.01
74 Copper and articles thereof 1,733 0.59 1,56410.75
75 Nickel and articles thereof 84 0.03 94-10.65
76 Aluminum and articles thereof 1,424 0.49 1,06733.47
78 Lead and articles thereof 21 0.01 1541.76
79 Zinc and articles thereof 231 0.08 12387.57
80 Tin and articles thereof 23 0.01 1644.59
81 Other base metals; cermets; articles thereof 391 0.13 31026.24
82 Tools, implements, cutlery, spoons and forks, of base metal; parts thereof of base metal 2,076 0.71 1,67124.22
83 Miscellaneous articles of base metal 1,982 0.68 1,62422.08
84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof 54,303 18.51 43,09626.01
85 Electrical machinery and equipment and parts thereof; sound recorders and reproducers, television image and sound recorders and reproducers, and parts and accessories of such articles 36,798 12.54 30,19221.88
86 Railway or tramway locomotives, rolling-stock and parts thereof; railway or tramway track fixtures and fittings and parts thereof; mechanical (including electro-mechanical) traffic signalling equipment of all kinds 742 0.25 748-0.79
87 Vehicles other than railway or tramway rolling stock, and parts and accessories thereof 26,865 9.16 18,50745.16
89 Ships, boats and floating structures 5,782 1.97 1,985191.25
90 Optical, photographic, cinematographic, measuring, checking, precision, medical or surgical instruments and apparatus; parts and accessories thereof 8,667 2.95 8,1086.89
91 Clocks and watches and parts thereof 367 0.12 29823.11
92 Musical instruments; parts and accessories of such articles 132 0.04 10822.37
94 Furniture; bedding, mattresses, mattress supports, cushions and similar stuffed furnishings; lamps and lighting fittings, not elsewhere specified or included; illuminated sign illuminated nameplates and the like; prefabricated buildings 3,882 1.32 2,79139.12
95 Toys, games and sports requisites; parts and accessories thereof 2,407 0.82 1,91125.96
96 Miscellaneous manufactured articles 1,362 0.46 1,08625.39
97 Works of art, collectors’ pieces and antiques 33 0.01 1786.47
SS Classified 0 0.00 7 694-100.00
Russian foreign trade statistics
Source: Federal Customs Service of Russia